Causes and development of knee osteoarthritis

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At the beginning of knee osteoarthritis there is usually a triggering trauma , an injury or an overload caused by work or sport . In addition to this initial event, other factors such as metabolism, hormonal balance and lifestyle can accelerate the development of knee osteoarthritis. One speaks here of a predisposition to osteoarthritis orthopaedic clinic singapore.

Even if the cartilage wear is initially the focus of attention, knee osteoarthritis is a disease of the entire knee joint: This means that all structures of the knee joint – bones, ligaments, cartilage – are affected by the disease process. Overwork, metabolic problems or traumatic damage can all trigger the development of osteoarthritis. Gonarthrosis is therefore not just a phenomenon of the cartilage layer in the knee joint.

Aging and overloading of the joints

Like all other connective tissue, cartilage is subject to age-related changes. The ability of the connective tissue to store water decreases with age. As long as the breakdown of the cartilage function is age-appropriate, one does not speak of an osteoarthritis that requires treatment, i.e. pathological arthritis. Only when the age of the joint appears to be considerably higher than the biological age does the situation require treatment for the doctor. It is worthwhile at any age to promote the metabolism in the cartilage through sufficient, gentle exercise. This cares for the joints and preserves reserves for natural cartilage regeneration.

Knee osteoarthritis as a side effect of medication

There are drugs such as B. quinolone antibiotics which can damage collagen-rich structures with long and intensive use. These drugs have detrimental effects on the metabolism of cartilage and tendons . These so-called fluoroquinolones include, for example, ciprofloxacin, a commonly prescribed antibiotic.

Metabolism and obesity (pathological excess weight)

The metabolically s syndrome (hypertension, high blood lipids, reduced glucose tolerance or diabetes ) is a strong risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis. On the one hand, being overweight leads to significantly increased mechanical stress on the joints. Compared to overweight patients, normal-weight patients receive their first knee prosthesis an average of 13 years later . Weight control is therefore one of the most effective joint-preserving measures.

In addition to the mechanical aspect of excess weight on the joints, the changed metabolism also plays a role in the development of knee osteoarthritis. So adipose tissue forms hormone-like messenger substances: the adipokines . These adipokines promote inflammation. Inflammatory hormones promote the breakdown of cartilage tissue in the joints. Cartilage tissue becomes softer and less resilient as a result of this process. A balanced diet suitable for osteoarthritis can have a positive influence on this development.

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